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Guggenheim Museum, New York The origin of the word jazz has resulted in considerable research, and its history is well documented. It is believed to be related to jasm, a slang term dating back to meaning "pep, energy".
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Attempts have been made to define jazz from the perspective of other musical traditions, such as European music history or African music.
But critic Joachim-Ernst Berendt argues that its terms of reference and its definition should be broader,  defining jazz as a "form of art music which originated in the United States through the confrontation of the Negro with European music"  and arguing that it differs from European music in that jazz has a "special relationship to time defined as 'swing'".
Jazz involves "a spontaneity and vitality of musical production in which improvisation plays a role" and contains a "sonority and manner of phrasing which mirror the individuality of the performing jazz musician".
Duke Ellingtonone of jazz's most famous figures, said, "It's all music. Jazz improvisation Although jazz is considered difficult to define, in part because it contains many subgenres, improvisation is one of its key elements.
The centrality of improvisation is attributed to the influence of earlier forms of music such as bluesa form of folk music which arose in part from the work songs and field hollers of African-American slaves on plantations. These work songs were commonly structured around a repetitive call-and-response pattern, but early blues was also improvisational.
Classical music performance is evaluated more by its fidelity to the musical scorewith less attention given to interpretation, ornamentation, and accompaniment. The classical performer's goal is to play the composition as it was written.
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In contrast, jazz is often characterized by the product of interaction and collaboration, placing less value on the contribution of the composer, if there is one, and more on the performer. Depending on the performer's mood, experience, and interaction with band members or audience members, the performer may change melodies, harmonies, and time signatures.
New Orleans jazz, performers took turns playing melodies and improvising countermelodies. In the swing era of the s—'40s, big bands relied more on arrangements which were written or learned by ear and memorized.
Soloists improvised within these arrangements. In the bebop era of the s, big bands gave way to small groups and minimal arrangements in which the melody was stated briefly at the beginning and most of the song was improvised.
Modal jazz abandoned chord progressions to allow musicians to improvise even more. In many forms of jazz, a soloist is supported by a rhythm section of one or more chordal instruments piano, guitardouble bass, and drums.
The rhythm section plays chords and rhythms that outline the song structure and complement the soloist. Tradition and race[ edit ] Since the emergence of bebop, forms of jazz that are commercially oriented or influenced by popular music have been criticized. According to Bruce Johnson, there has always been a "tension between jazz as a commercial music and an art form".
An alternative view is that jazz can absorb and transform diverse musical styles. For others, jazz is a reminder of "an oppressive and racist society and restrictions on their artistic visions".
Papa Jack Lainewho ran the Reliance band in New Orleans in the s, was called "the father of white jazz". Others from Chicago such as Benny Goodman and Gene Krupa became leading members of swing during the s.Cruise down the Nile in comfort and style on-board the five-star Deluxe Jaz Royale for a truly regal experience.
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