Moreover, set against land-based industry, shipping is, overall, a comparatively minor contributor to marine pollution from human activities.
Permalink Submitted by Trevor Strawbridge on Fri, The underlying issue here appears to be lack of regulations and hence less regard for workers well being before profit.
Many of the accidents are attributable to poisonous or volatile gases. Chinese government has blamed illegal production and although safety improvements and procedures are being introduced they are still very often ignored.
Until Government can enforce these, the situation is unlikely to improve. The PRC government see the enforcement costly, and difficult due to geographical problems associated with enforcement. For example many of the mines are located in rural areas that are remote and difficult to access.
It appears that this growing economy still has a long way to go achieve safety standards that we in Europe are accustomed to.
The cause was found to be a result of an ancient geological landslide on the eastern side of the dam. The damn collapsed as a result of the full hydrostatic load in the reservoir after a heavy rainfall.
Thus exerting excess stress to the eastern side. The release of the Flood wave said to be in excess of 40m cascaded the town of Santa Paula. During the inquiry there was conflict between the Government departments, the geologists and the design and engineering departments.
Lead to radical change in regulations for offshore installations. The incident was said to have been caused by miscommunication during a maintenance operation on a Pressure relief valve.
This was said to have been moved from a gas compression module and replaced by a blind flange. The flange was only hand tightened as the operations were said not to restart until later in the day.
When they did restart the Valve was missing and the flange was still only hand tight. Ignition was then imminent. The Cullen report was issued in the aftermath and a series of recommendations were implemented; including the necessity for Duty Holders to produce a safety case.
The introduction of several Statutory instruments were also introduced which regulated the design and construction of offshore installations. The report was also critical of Piper Alpha's operator, Occidental, who were found guilty of having inadequate maintenance and safety procedures.
But no criminal charges were ever brought against them. Had these safety procedures been implemented and practiced there would have been a strong possibility that more workers could have escaped, but more importantly; the incident may never had occurred. After a spell of poor whether the waste and deluge had cascaded; as would a normal landslide, and buried the primary school.
Today we are aware that such a pile would be hazardous but back in this was not the case. The government appointed Mines Inspectorate were only employed to ensure that the mines themselves were safe.
Lord Robens the Chairman of the NCB had been seen to be callas by the public and did not visit the site until his return from holiday. The disaster itself happened very quickly without any prior warning. That day the visibility was said to be 50m but clear at the top of the heap.
The previous wet weather had played a big part in releasing the product. In the platform had just completed a campaign at EDDA and was anchored offshore when the weather had seen 40 knot winds with 12m waves.
Whist the majority of the workers on board were off duty in the cinema, a loud crack was observed and it transpired that 5 out of 6 of the anchor chains had broke and the platform started to capsize.
The list increased during which time the workers had tried to evacuate but experienced major difficulties releasing the life crafts. In fact of the 50 life crafts on board only one was successfully launched.
Whilst the evacuation was in progress the final anchor had gave way, and the structure capsized. Investigations found that a small fillet weld to attach a hydrophone bracket to a cross brace was incompletely welded and thus caused a stress point in the cross brace.
This had failed causing the bracing to collapse in the attributed storm. It was later found that the design of the platform had not allowed for any redundancy in its structure. Furthermore the evacuation procedures were criticised and the lessons learned from this had been implemented in the OPITO type safety training we know today.
Finally the one contribution that may well had been the route cause of the accident, is that the platform was originally built as an accommodation module only and had makeshift modifications applied to it for oil exploration.
A total of 4 explosions were detected. The cause of the explosions are still unclear but were there is definitive evidence of an abundance of Methane Gas present.
The possible safety measures not used in the Pike River Mine were; a "tube bundling" gas measurement system, stocks of food and water, breathing apparatus, and a second entrance.The ideal candidate for the program is a maritime professional preferably with some years’ experience within the shipping industry after received a BSc degree in major nautical, marine engineering, shipping and logistics or equivalent education and with a genuine passion for quality and sustainability.
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