Overcoming the Income Gap Overcoming the Income Gap Anne Nelson Fourth in a Series One of the most complex aspects of the achievement gap—one that, by and large, is out of the direct control of educational leaders—is the income gap. Broadly defined, the income gap is the standard of living difference between rich and poor, but in the education system, the gap permeates deeply into many dimensions of a student's progression from kindergarten to senior year. This issue, the fourth in a series on the achievement gap, will explore the income gap, the relationship between the income gap and educational achievement, and practices that promise to mitigate its impact.
This report was produced in collaboration with the Broader, Bolder Approach to Education. What this study finds: That is, children who start behind stay behind—they are rarely able to make up the lost ground.
We find that large performance gaps exist between children in the lowest and highest socioeconomic-status SES quintiles and that these gaps have persisted from the cohort to the cohort. The positive news is that the gaps have not grown, even as economic inequalities between these two groups of students have grown.
These performance gaps reflect extensive unmet needs and thus untapped talents among low-SES children. The development of strong cognitive and noncognitive skills is essential for success in school and beyond.
Low educational achievement leads to lowered economic prospects later in life, perpetuating a lack of social mobility across generations. Greater investments in pre-K programs can narrow the gaps between students at the start of school.
And to ensure that these early gains are maintained, districts can provide continued comprehensive academic, health, nutrition, and emotional support for children through their academic years, including meaningful engagement of parents and communities. Since the early s, the total share of income claimed by the bottom 90 percent of Americans has steadily decreased, with the majority of income gains going to the top 1 percent.
These trends would not be such a major concern if our education system compensated for these inequities by helping level the playing field and enabling children to rise above their birth circumstances. But that is hardly the case.
Rather, the fraction of children who earn more than their parents absolute mobility has fallen from approximately 90 percent for children born in to 50 percent for children born in the s. Much is known about the determinants and mechanisms that drive early skills gaps among children of different backgrounds, but our failure to narrow social-class-based skills gaps from one generation of students to the next calls for further analysis to determine the degree of influence these factors have and how interventions employed in recent years to address these factors have or have not worked and why.
Moreover, shifting economic and demographic landscapes emphasize the need for more robust policy strategies to address the gaps. This three-part study thus combines a statistical analysis of early skills gaps among a recent cohort of children and changes in them over time with a qualitative study of multifaceted, school-district-level strategies to narrow them.
Questions, data and methodology In this paper, we: We compare the average performance of children in the top fifth of the socioeconomic status distribution high-SES with the average performance of children in the bottom fifth low-SES.
Skills measured include reading and mathematics, as well as self-control and approaches to learning as reported by both teachers and parents. Examine SES-based gaps at kindergarten entry among the most recently surveyed cohort the kindergarten class of — Compare these SES gaps with those of an earlier cohort —with a focus on changes in the skills gaps between children in the high- and low-SES quintiles.
Review a set of 12 case studies of communities that have employed comprehensive educational strategies and wraparound supports to provide more children especially low-income children with strong early academic foundations, and to sustain and build on early gains throughout their K—12 school years.
Based on examples from these diverse communities, we discuss implications: The report ends with conclusions and recommendations for further research, practice, and policy. What we find Our quantitative research produces a broad set of findings: Very large SES-based gaps in academic performance exist and have persisted across the two most recent cohorts of students when they start kindergarten.
The estimated gaps between children in the highest and lowest fifths of the SES distribution are over a standard deviation sd in both reading and math in unadjusted performance gaps are 1.
Gaps in noncognitive skills such as self-control and approaches to learning are roughly between one-third and one-half as large unadjusted performance gaps are about 0.
SES-based gaps across both types of skills among the kindergartners are virtually unchanged compared with the prior academic generation of students the class of The only unadjusted cognitive skills gap between children in the high-SES and low-SES fifths that changed significantly over this period was the gap in reading skills, which increased by about a tenth of a standard deviation.
Gaps in approaches to learning as reported by teachers and in self-control as reported by parents shrank between and by roughly the same amount 0. Gaps in mathematics, in approaches to learning as reported by parents, and in self-control as reported by teachers did not change significantly. This means that though part of the SES gap is attributable to differences in these characteristics and in family investments between children in the high and low parts of the SES distribution, a substantial share of SES-related factors is not captured by these controls, but is important to explaining how and why gaps develop, and thus how to narrow them.
Moreover, the capacity for these other factors to narrow gaps has decreased over time—as a whole, they accounted for a smaller share of the gaps in than they had in This suggests that, while such activities as parental time spent with children and center-based pre-K programs cushion the negative consequences of growing up in a low-SES household, they can do only so much, and that the consequences of poverty are increasingly hard to compensate for.
This resistance of gaps to these controls is thus a matter of serious concern for researchers and policymakers alike. Among children in the low-SES quintile, in a larger share lived in poverty Just over half of these children Among children in the high-SES quintile, the group in includes a lower share of white children falling from They were slightly more likely to live with two parents the share not living with two parents decreased from In our analyses, we find that all are equally reliable social-class proxies for the estimation of early achievement gaps, though absolute gaps and trends in them vary slightly depending on the indicator used.Paulo Freire and Revolutionary Pedagogy For Social Justice by Rich Gibson Associate Professor of Education.
San Diego State University. [email protected] Jan 29, · Students who participated in an intensive childhood education program from preschool to third grade were more likely to achieve an academic degree beyond high school, compared to a similar group that received other intervention services as children, with greater benefits for those whose mothers were high school dropouts.
Book Reviews, Book Lover Resources, Advice for Writers and Publishers: Home / Small Press Bookwatch. After being taken down twice by Blogger within a single week, we got the message: It’s Time To Go.
Gates of Vienna has moved to a new address. However, the application of ICT in education may have important domestic evidenced by differences in the quality of the education available to poor and middle-class neighbourhoods.
These gaps are reflected in the number of the cognitive gap emerges between teachers and . [title page] E N G L I S H for ages 5 to Proposals of the Secretary of State for Education and Science and the Secretary of State for Wales.