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Theology[ edit ] The beliefs and rituals now referred to as "ancient Egyptian religion" were integral within every aspect of Egyptian culture.
The Egyptian language possessed no single term corresponding to the modern European concept of religion. Ancient Egyptian religion was not a monolithic institution, but consisted of a vast and varying set of beliefs and practices, linked by their common focus on the interaction between the world of humans and the world of the divine.
The characteristics of the gods who populated the divine realm were inextricably linked to the Egyptians' understanding of the properties of the world in which they lived. Ancient Egyptian deities The gods Osiris, Anubis, and Horus, in order from left to right The Egyptians believed that the phenomena of nature were divine forces in and of themselves.
The Egyptians believed in a pantheon of gods, which were involved in all aspects of nature and human society. Their religious practices were efforts to sustain and placate these phenomena and turn them to human advantage.
Conversely, many natural forces, such as the sun, were associated with multiple deities. The diverse pantheon ranged from gods with vital roles in the universe to minor deities or "demons" with very limited or localized functions.
Instead, these depictions gave recognizable forms to the abstract deities by using symbolic imagery to indicate each god's role in nature. His black skin was symbolic of the color of mummified flesh and the fertile black soil that Egyptians saw as a symbol of resurrection.
This iconography was not fixed, and many of the gods could be depicted in more than one form. However, these associations changed over time, and they did not mean that the god associated with a place had originated there.
For instance, the god Montu was the original patron of the city of Thebes. Over the course of the Middle Kingdomhowever, he was displaced in that role by Amun, who may have arisen elsewhere. The national popularity and importance of individual gods fluctuated in a similar way. The Egyptians often grouped gods together to reflect these relationships.
Some groups of deities were of indeterminate size, and were linked by their similar functions. These often consisted of minor deities with little individual identity.
Other combinations linked independent deities based on the symbolic meaning of numbers in Egyptian mythology ; for instance, pairs of deities usually represent the duality of opposite phenomena.
One of the more common combinations was a family triad consisting of a father, mother, and child, who were worshipped together. Some groups had wide-ranging importance. One such group, the Enneadassembled nine deities into a theological system that was involved in the mythological areas of creation, kingship, and the afterlife.
This process was a recognition of the presence of one god "in" another when the second god took on a role belonging to the first. These links between deities were fluid, and did not represent the permanent merging of two gods into one; therefore, some gods could develop multiple syncretic connections.
At other times it joined gods with very different natures, as when Amun, the god of hidden power, was linked with Rathe god of the sun. The resulting god, Amun-Ra, thus united the power that lay behind all things with the greatest and most visible force in nature.
This is particularly true of a few gods who, at various points, rose to supreme importance in Egyptian religion. These included the royal patron Horusthe sun god Raand the mother goddess Isis.
The theology of the period described in particular detail Amun's presence in and rule over all things, so that he, more than any other deity, embodied the all-encompassing power of the divine.
Instances in Egyptian literature where "god" is mentioned without reference to any specific deity would seem to give this view added weight. However, in Erik Hornung pointed out that the traits of an apparently supreme being could be attributed to many different gods, even in periods when other gods were preeminent, and further argued that references to an unspecified "god" are meant to refer flexibly to any deity.
He therefore argued that, while some individuals may have henotheistically chosen one god to worship, Egyptian religion as a whole had no notion of a divine being beyond the immediate multitude of deities. Yet the debate did not end there; Jan Assmann and James P.
Allen have since asserted that the Egyptians did to some degree recognize a single divine force. In Allen's view, the notion of an underlying unity of the divine coexisted inclusively with the polytheistic tradition.
It is possible that only the Egyptian theologians fully recognized this underlying unity, but it is also possible that ordinary Egyptians identified the single divine force with a single god in particular situations.
Atenism During the New Kingdom the pharaoh Akhenaten abolished the official worship of other gods in favor of the sun-disk Aten. This is often seen as the first instance of true monotheism in history, although the details of Atenist theology are still unclear and the suggestion that it was monotheistic is disputed.
The exclusion of all but one god from worship was a radical departure from Egyptian tradition and some see Akhenaten as a practitioner of monolatry rather than monotheism,   as he did not actively deny the existence of other gods; he simply refrained from worshipping any but the Aten.
Under Akhenaten's successors Egypt reverted to its traditional religion, and Akhenaten himself came to be reviled as a heretic. The Egyptian conception of the universe centered on Maata word that encompasses several concepts in English, including "truth", "justice", and "order.
It had existed since the creation of the world, and without it the world would lose its cohesion.Flutes of Gilgamesh and Ancient Mesopotamia. The Epic of Gilgamesh, the greatest literary work of Ancient Mesopotamia, talks of a flute made of carnelian, a semi-precious metin2sell.com passage was recently identified on cuneiform tablets written in Akkadian, an ancient semitic language.
Index of Egyptian History. Egyptian history constitutes an awesome period of time. Including the Ptolemies, it covers at least three thousand years (c . The ancient Mesopotamia's believed that you would go somewhere underneath the living in afterlife. It was this land was known as Arallû, Ganzer or metin2sell.com was believed everyone went to the same place afterdeath, regardless of social status.
Crossing The River: The Journey of Death in Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia.
August 21, - anthropology / death / Egypt / Mesopotamia The religious traditions of ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia were born on the banks of rivers.
The noble people, such as pharaohs, received tombs and anything that was believed they would need in the afterlife. The more things, or "gifts" as they were called, a pharaoh had going into the afterlife, the better chance he had of being accepted.
The World Beyond In some cultures, the afterlife is regarded as a place of pleasure and joy. In others, it is a gloomy shadow of earthly existence, a slow fading away, or a remote and unknowable realm.