Cicero won the case against major resistance. In Quintus Caecilius Metellus Pius Scipio Nasica, Lucius Cornelius Sisenna, and Quintus Hortensius Hortalus, the consul designate for 69 and a formidable public speaker, Verres managed to recruit a group of defence advocates brimming with nobility and talent. Not the least of their skills was the ability to think up procedural shenanigans to derail or at least delay the trial until the following year. Other powerful supporters chipped in by embarking upon strategic intimidation of the Sicilian witnesses.
The run-up 12 When Trial of verres essay Sicilians turned to Rome for help against the plundering and extortion perpetrated by Verres, Cicero was a natural point of contact: Caecilius Niger also applied for the leave to prosecute; such rival requests entailed the need for a so-called divinatio, which consisted of a hearing before a jury presided over by the praetor at which the rival parties staked their claims.
Cicero triumphed with the surviving speech Divinatio in Caecilium, in which he showed that his adversary was just not up to the task. At various places in the Verrines, he boasts about the speed with which he marshalled evidence. The trial After the selection of the jury in the second half of July, the trial began on 5 August.
As already mentioned, Verres and his supporters tried to prolong the trial until the following year. In 69, Hortensius, one of his advocates, and Q. Caecilius Metellus Creticus, one of his main friends and supporters, would have been consuls, and M.
Caecilius Metellus a brother of the aforementioned Metellus would have presided over the extortion court as praetor. Likewise, there was the prospect of a more favourable jury that is, one more liable to corruption since several of the chosen jury members were due to leave Rome in 69 BC to take up offices, ruling them out of jury duty.
As a countermove and to accelerate proceedings, Cicero broke with conventions in his opening speech: Verres considered the case that Cicero presented against him during the first hearing so compelling that he went into voluntary exile.
The actio secunda, for which Cicero had prepared a massive amount of material adding up to five full speeches, never took place. The corpus of speeches 18 In the aftermath of the trial, Cicero not only published the Divinatio in Caecilium and the speech he gave during the actio prima commonly labelled in Verrem 1but also the five speeches he had prepared for the actio secunda in Verrem 2.
In outline, we have the following corpus: Divinatio in Caecilium [delivered January 70 BC] in Verrem 1 [delivered August 70 BC, during the actio prima] in Verrem 2 [planned for the actio secunda, but never delivered] in Verrem 2.
Sicily - abuse of judicial power in Verrem 2. Sicily - extortion of taxes in Verrem 2. Sicily - robbery of artworks in Verrem 2.
Sicily - Verres as magistrate with imperium, responsible for public safety and endowed with the power to punish Cicero only decided to publish a selection of his speeches. Scholars have debated, more or less inconclusively, whether and, if so, to what degree Cicero revised speeches after delivery before circulating them in written form.
No clear consensus has emerged, not least since his practice will most likely have differed from case to case, ranging from almost instant release with only minor adjustments to significant revision and publication several years after the original delivery. Still, it bears stressing that in the form we have them they are indistinguishable from the written versions of those speeches he actually delivered.Against Verres 63 Translation On the Hellespont, there is a town called Lampsacus, members of the jury, among the best of the provinces of Asia, famous and renowned; the inhabitants, on the other hand, the Lampsacenes themselves, are not just in the highest degree obliging to all Roman citizens, but are, moreover, also extremely calm and peace.
Cicero’s opening speech in the ‘Trial of Verres’ Essay Sample. Cicero’s opening speech in the ‘Trial of Verres’ is focused on the failings of Gaius Verres as he rose up in the Roman political system to the level of governor, and his subsequent attempts to corrupt the court system in order to be acquitted and avoid a legitimate trial.
Trial of Verres. Climbing the 'Cursus Honorum' Lex Manilia and Lex Gabinia.
Campaign for Consulship. Consul. An "Utter Fool" The First Triumvirate. Exile. Return to Rome. The Civil War. Death of Julius Caesar. Timeline. Powered by Create your own unique website with customizable templates.
The choosing of jurors by lot was called the sortitio. In the case of Gaius Verres, the sortitio probably occurred in early June 70 B.C. The law allowed Verres, as a defendant of senatorial rank, to challenge six potential jurors. Cicero could challenge only three. - The Selection and Role of a Jury in a Criminal Trial This assignment focuses on how a jury is selected and its role in a criminal trial.
The advantages and disadvantages of using a jury to decide the outcome of a criminal case will also be considered. Verres also seized public and private art for his own collection and mismanaged the navy massively. How Cicero Won Cicero's rhetoric skills were vitally important to his victory in the Trial of Verres.